Please read these before asking questions on the cmucl-help and
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- Q: How do I turn off these GC messages?
[GC threshold exceeded with 10,411,328 bytes in use. Commencing GC.]
[GC completed with 990,320 bytes retained and 9,421,008 bytes freed.]
[GC will next occur when at least 8,990,320 bytes are in use.]
A: Add (setq ext:*gc-verbose* nil) to your
~/.cmucl-init initialization file. See the CMUCL User's
Manual for more information on tuning the garbage collector.
- Q: Why does CMUCL say Warning: Declaring foo special?
A: This happens when you have used SETQ on an
undeclared variable at the top level. The default behaviour of CMUCL in
this situation is to
declare the variable special (transforming it from a lexically bound
variable to a dynamically bound variable). In effect, when you do
(setq foo 42)
and foo has not previously been declared (using DEFVAR or DEFPARAMETER for example), CMUCL will implicitly
for you. This is done for the user's convenience, but can lead to
strange behaviour if you're not expecting it (since by convention special
variables are named with surrounding *asterisks*), which is why CMUCL emits
the warning message. Also note that there is no way of undoing the SPECIAL
declaration, to allow purely lexical binding of the symbol.
The variable ext:*top-level-auto-declare*
allows you to control this behaviour.
- Q: How do I compile my Lisp program to an executable?
A: CMUCL does not, in general, support delivery as an executable. If this
bothers you, note that this is also the case of most other programming
language implementations: for example Sun's java implementation
requires a bundle of class files.
The standard way of delivering a Common Lisp application with CMUCL is
to dump an image containing all your application code (see the CMUCL
User's Manual for details), and deliver a tarball containing this
image, the lisp runtime, and a shell script which launches the runtime
with your image (see the sample-wrapper distributed with CMUCL
for guidance). Also see the following hint on making Lisp files
However, on Linux and FreeBSD x86 platforms, CMUCL can actually
produce an executable. This is done by specifying
:executable t option for
executable file contains the current entire core image and
runtime. See the section Saving a Core Image in the
CMUCL User's Manual for more information.
- Q: Why does CMUCL say it's called Python 1.1 when it starts up?
Isn't that the name of a scripting language?
A: The CMUCL native code compiler is called Python. This use
of the name predates the existence of that other scripting
On the history of the name, Rob MacLachlan says
Scott Fahlman said that he wanted a really smart
compiler that would digest your program the way a Python digests a
pig. It was a colorful metaphor for the idea of a compiler that
pushed farther in the direction of trading compile efficiency for
runtime efficiency. We achieved this to such a degree that the
original Spice machine,
couldn't usefully run Python, though we tried it. It ran
first on the IBM RT PC. This was cross-compiled using the
previous Spice Lisp compiler (CLC, Common Lisp Compiler), which
had a large runtime of assembler written by David B. Mcdonald, and
the first Python backend used all of that assembly runtime. The
first port setting the pattern of later ports was the MIPS port,
which was largely done by William Lott.
Scott Fahlman says he
thought Python was a good name because a compiler is a long
pipeline. A pig goes in one end, the snake goes off to rest under
a bush for a surprisingly long time, the pipeline does its thing,
and compact little pellet eventually comes out the other end.
- Q: How do I report a bug in CMUCL?
A: Send an email describing the problem to the cmucl-help xor
cmucl-imp mailing lists (see the Support
page for more information on these lists). Make sure you include
the version of CMUCL that you are using (for instance the herald that
it prints on startup), the platform, your *features*. Make sure that the problem isn't coming
from your personal or site-wide initialization files. Try to find the
smallest input file that provokes the problem.
- Q: How does CMUCL compare with other Common Lisp
A: The short answer is that this really depends on your needs. Most
free implementations are fairly easy to install, and you should be able
to obtain evaluation copies of the commercial implementations, so it
isn't difficult to make a choice yourself.
A longer answer is that compared with the various commercial Common
Lisp implementations (see lisp.org
for a list), CMUCL is free: you can use it for zero upfront cost, and
it has a very liberal license that imposes few restrictions on its use
and redistribution. You also have access to the source code if you wish
to customize the implementation to your requirements. However, you
can't get a support contract from the vendor (though you could probably
find experienced CMUCL developers prepared to freelance -- contact the
cmucl-imp mailing list), and CMUCL is missing certain features present
in the commercial implementations (portability to Microsoft Windows
platforms, graphical browsers, GUI widgets, add-on libraries ...).
Compared with CLISP, CMUCL runs
on fewer platforms and has significantly higher memory usage. CLISP has
better internationalization support, in particular support for UNICODE.
Since CMUCL compiles to native code, it is an order of magnitude faster
on most applications than CLISP's bytecode execution model, and
generally provides more useful debugging output. However, the
mathematical primitives in CLISP are very fast, in particular its
bignum operations. CLISP also provides floats of unlimited precision,
while CMUCL is limited to IEEE-754 single-float and double-float, and
an extended double-double-float. CMUCL has a more powerful
foreign function interface than CLISP, and supports multiprocessing on
Compared with SBCL (a fork from the
CMUCL implementation), CMUCL a different set of features (it includes a
Motif interface, but does not have SBCL's native threads on Linux/x86
platforms, nor Unicode support). CMUCL has a faster compiler, but
compiled code runs at a similar speed to SBCL-generated code. SBCL is
closer to the ANSI CL specification in some respects, and generally
emits more warnings about ANSI-compliance. SBCL runs on a larger number
of platforms than CMUCL, and in general is more actively developed than
- Q: What user interface do you use with CMUCL?
A: Many people like to use SLIME in Emacs.
- Q: How difficult is it to port CMUCL to a new platform?
A: Short answer: fairly difficult. There are two aspects to
porting: writing a backend for the new the CPU architecture, and
handling the runtime's interaction with the operating system.
Writing a compiler backend to target a new CPU involves deciding on a
register allocation policy, and writing assembly definitions for the
CMUCL virtual machine operations (VOPs). There are also a number of
utility routines to write in assembly, and some CPU-specific
constants (number of registers, how FPU exceptions are reported to user
land, how wide floating point registers are) to define.
Targeting a new operating system involves getting the runtime to
compile. This means stuff like deciding on a memory map, implementing
memory management routines. The trickiest bit is probably signal
handling, and extracting the address of the faulting instruction from a
- Q: The garbage collector doesn't want to collect my big object!
A: You may have done something like
USER> (setq *print-array* nil)
USER> (defvar *big* (make-array 42000000 :element-type 'double-float))
;; use big, then get rid of it
USER> (setq *big* nil)
USER> (gc :full t) ;; :full only with generational collector
You no longer have any references to the array, so were expecting it to
be garbage collected. However, according to (ROOM) it
wasn't. The reason is that the read-eval-print-loop
maintains variables called *, ** and
***, that reference the values of the last three forms
evaluated, and the array is still accessible from these. Try evaluating
a few other forms (like 1), then call the garbage collector again.
(This question isn't specific to CMUCL; you'll observe the same in
- Q: CMUCL dies with *A2 gc_alloc_large failed, nbytes=NNN
A: This is the generational conservative garbage collector
telling you that you have exhausted the available dynamic space (the
memory zone that is used for normal lisp objects). You can increase the
size of the dynamic space reserved on startup by using the
-dynamic-space-size commandline option (see the CMUCL User's
Manual for details). You can determine the amount of dynamic space
currently available as follows:
USER> (alien:def-alien-variable ("dynamic_space_size" dynamic-space-size) c-call::int)
(SYSTEM:FOREIGN-SYMBOL-ADDRESS '"dynamic_space_size") (ALIEN:SIGNED 32)>
- Q: What does Error in function UNIX::SIGSEGV-HANDLER:
Segmentation Violation at #x1004C7BD. mean?
A: This means that CMUCL has received a signal indicating a
segmentation violation from the operating system, at an unexpected
address (it already uses SIGSEGV for normal operation of the garbage
collector). This can be due to:
- you have linked with some alien code (such as a shared library)
which is generating segmentation violations. This can be due to a bug
in the alien code, or to you passing it invalid pointers.
- you have lied to the compiler (written incorrect type
declarations), and compiled your code in unsafe mode (with the speed
optimization quality higher than the safety quality). For example, you
may have declared that a variable was an array, and actually passed a
list to the function. Make sure that you compile and run your code in
safe mode before trying to increase its speed.
- you may have encountered an internal bug in CMUCL. It's quite
unlikely that a bug should manifest itself in this way, though, so
please check the first two possibilities before reporting a bug.
- Q: Where can I hang out with CMUCL folks on IRC?
A: Try the #lisp channel on the freenode network. A number of CMUCL
users and developers (as well as SBCL creatures) can occasionally be
found wasting time there.
- Q: CMUCL leaks too much stuff from the compile-time environment
to the evaluation environment!
A: You may encounter this problem when porting code written for
CMUCL to another Common Lisp implementation -- such as LispWorks or
OpenMCL -- which is more conservative than CMUCL in propagating
declarations to the evaluation environment. For instance, consider the
compilation of a file containing the following code:
(defconstant +foo+ #\a)
(defun foo () #.(char-code +foo+))
This code will compile in CMUCL, but some other implementations will
complain that the symbol +foo+ is not bound when compiling the
function foo. CMUCL propagates the compile-time effect of the
DEFCONSTANT form to what CLtS calls the evaluation environment,
so that it becomes available when compiling the remainder of the file.
Certain other implementations are stricter in not leaking information
in this way, and require you to write the above code as
(eval-when (:compile-toplevel :load-toplevel)
(defconstant +foo+ #\a))
(defun foo () #.(char-code +foo+))
This code will also work in CMUCL. See Section 220.127.116.11 Processing of
Top Level Forms of CLtS for more details (the specification is
somewhat vague about some of these issues, which explains why there is
considerable variation in behaviour from one implementation to
- Q: What is the meaning of the error message I see when tracing
functions: :FUNCTION-END breakpoints are currently unsupported for
the known return convention ?
A: This is a deficiency in the tracing support that has
been fixed. It shouldn't happen anymore, but if you do see this,
please report this bug. A simple workaround is to use
USERL> (trace my-function :encapsulate t)
This causes a different mechanism to be
used for the breakpoints that are used by tracing facility.
- Q: On my Linux machine, CMUCL dies on startup saying
Error in allocating memory, please do "echo 1 > /proc/sys/vm/overcommit_memory"
or get more memory+swap.
A: Hopefully the message is fairly clear. The problem is that
due to implementation choices, CMUCL reserves a large address space
when it starts up, instead of allocating memory on demand, as do most
applications. In its default configuration, the linux kernel may refuse
to reserve amounts of memory which are far greater than the amout of
available RAM and swap (this is called overcommitting, since the kernel
commits itself to satisfy more memory than is actually available). You
can either increase the amount of swap available (see the
mkswap command), or change the kernel's policy using (as root)
the command quoted above.